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Despite natural deficiencies, the Black Sea served well to the adjacent countries as a food source, transportation route, recreational facility, and even disposal site. As a result of these activities, it is subjected to many impacts such as pollution, habitat degradation, and overexploitation in the last decades. The contamination of oxygenated water layer by the pollutants is considered as a major threat to the Black Sea environment. Not only the adjacent countries but also the ones in the drainage basin (a total of 22 countries) are contributors to pollution transported by the rivers. These rivers are highly contaminated with industrial and mining wastes and nutrients from agriculture. The Black Sea is also an important source for the fisheries. As a result of intensive fishing activities, most stocks especially small pelagic fishes are continuing to be fished outside biologically sustainable limits. Habitat losses limiting the reproduction and foraging areas as the result of fishing should be considered as a side effect as well. For the sustainable management of natural resources, we need to understand how long the Black Sea can carry such a burden. In this article we focus on the Black Sea in needs for a sustainable ecosystem management for the future.