Main Article Content
The aim of the research is to study the ecological environment of water resources formation and distribution in the mountainous region under the conditions of global warming. The study revealed that the impact of groundwater is significant in the formation of the Khobi and Tekhuri, Enguri and other small rivers. The hydrogeological feature of the middle and highland relief is the development of hydrodynamic zones. Observations have shown that under the influence of carbonate rocks they caused uneven water permeability in their layers. The action of rivers created a network of karst caves where the systematic concentration of water in the process of global warming led to the expansion of old erosive valleys and river basins. It is important to obtain groundwater for feeding the Enguri River. Research has shown that at the headwaters, soils are unsustainable and poorly developed. The main function in the formation of groundwater is performed by rock decay products. At this time, the outflow of sources from the sediments will be detected. The Enguri River originates on the Enguri Glacier in the
Caucasus Mountains at 2614 m above sea level and joins the Black Sea near the village of Anaklia. It has a mixed power supply. In Samegrelo and Svaneti, the western part of the Enguri River basin and the right Adesh floodplain of its tributaries, Khaldechala, Mulkhra, Dolarchala, Nakra, Neskra, Left Tkheshi, Khumfreri, Dasili, Magana, Jumi and others are located. The river crosses the Svaneti basin. Then flows into a deep and narrow valley. The river bed is sometimes gloomy, near the town of Jvari the river flows down to the Colchis plain, forming a wide valley and itching. It is divided into two branches near the village of Rukhi, the distance between them is 12 km, there is an island 0.5-1.2 km wide between the branches and the village of Shamgoni is settled on it.
The Enguri is fed by mixed feed, with 66% of the annual runoff from snow and glacier water - 22% groundwater and 12% rainwater. In Kemo - 18%, 26% and 56% respectively. The average annual flow near the village of Khaishi is 109 m3 / s. 170 m3 / s at the confluence. Floods are characterized by spring and summer. They also use the transport function to protect the river timber. It flows with little water in winter. The river is used for irrigation through the Enguri-Gali irrigation canal. There is an Enguri hydroelectric power station on the river, which crosses the administrative borders of the Abkhazian region.