Technological Academy of Kutaisi Georgian Academy of Wcological Sciences

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Amiran Aptsiauri


The paper focuses on the fact that in order to produce mechanical energy from thermal energy, in addition to gas, liquid and solid bodies may also be used as the working body. In addition to the fact that living organisms might be expanding and contracting in volume, scientists have already created polymer materials that undergo significant deformations under the influence of small electric signals. Therefore, just as nature could, man can create such a composite engine that, even in the conditions of small temperature gradients, under the action of small disturbances (electric signals), will generate useful energy. The paper displays that the efficiency
of such converters is much higher than the efficiency of the Carnot heat engine and, contrary to Carnot theorem, depends on the physical properties of the material. The expression of the efficiency is proposed for such a type of low-temperature composite generator, which is a physical model of mechanical energy generation in living organisms. Consequently, it is shown that Carnot's theorem does not have a universal character. By creating and testing new synthetic materials, it is possible to create a completely new type of heat engines with much higher efficiency. Regardless of how effective they prove to be in practical applications, research in this direction is highly relevant, as this direction destroys the theoretical bases of thermodynamics and existing energy industry, as well as proves that humankind is capable of creating machines that efficiently generate energy from the surrounding equilibrium space, with zero or negligible temperature differences.

Published: Nov 30, 2023

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Physico-chemical and space ecology